Pureandcure, Wellness Travel Worldwide
Holiday type



Where can I find information?

Every holiday needs good preparation. This includes wellbeing holidays. Puurenkuur is an internet-tour operator, meaning the latest up to date information can be found on our live website. In addition to our extensive website, we also have information in the form of a Wellness brochure containing extensive background information, testimonials from clients and further details on wellbeing holidays.


We always suggest our clients are fully briefed before departure. Our travel experts are highly  familiar with the various hotels and wellness programmes we  offer. Please contact us directly by phone or email with any questions or queries you may have. We are open 6 days a week. Please see the bottom of this page for details of our office hours.


Booking your holiday

How can I book my holiday? 

You can book either through our website, by email or by phone. On our website you can book 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Select your holiday of preference and after clicking on ‘book’, you will be lead to a form where you can fill in your personal details, travel dates and the required number of rooms. If you would prefer to book by phone, please contact our travel experts during our office hours.

NB: If you would like us to arrange your flights, please bear in mind that you are responsible for providing correct name(s) and dates of birth of all travellers, as detailed in your passports.

On booking, please be sure to check the details on your Puurenkuur confirmation/invoice. Any inaccuracies will be at the expense of the person who submitted the booking.

The online booking form includes a ‘Comments’ field where any special requests (e.g. dietary requirements, extra nights, gift vouchers ) can be listed. Certain types of treatment programmes require that you provide us with a list of any medical complaints, your height and weight. This information will be passed on to the hotel for the purposes of delivering appropriate treatment. Please be assured that your personal information is kept strictly confidential.

After filling in all your personal details, you will be provided with an overview of your travel request. You automatically receive an acknowledgment of your booking by email. Please note that this is not final confirmation. All programmes are complied on an idividual request basis - please await final confirmation that we have received and can process your request, particularly when you are arranging your own flights.


Can I hold an option on a specific holiday?

Yes, it is possible to hold an option for a holiday. An option is valid for a maximum period of 3 days and will automatically expire failing further correspondence from you.

Is my booking on request?

Yes, all bookings are on request, with the exception of the group programmes which are solely organised by Puurenkuur in the Netherlands for a minimum number of participants. Within one working day you will receive a final booking confirmation. If you have any additional requirements, such as a flight proposal, extra nights and/or a different room type, we will contact you directly within one working day.

Do I pay a booking fee?

Yes. Booking fees for all our bookings € 10. 

Can I change my booking?

Yes, you can make changes to your booking up to one week before departure. Please note, that this does not apply in case of the Puurenkuur Group programmes. For all programmes in the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany, any amendments to bookings are charged at € 15.00, plus any extra costs that may result from the change. Any amendments to bookings to any other destinations are charged at € 27.00, plus any extra costs resulting from the change. Please contact a Puurenkuur travel expert for exact costs relating to a required change. No fee will be charged for amending the names of any travellers. This does not include holidays for which Puurenkuur has booked flights.


Puurenkuur flights

Is a fare for the flights included in my booking?

Since the 1st of January 2012, all programmes and prices published on this website are without flights. We decided to offer our programmes without flights to give you the option to select the flights which suit you best. Of course, you can also book your flights through us. We can also reserve you a Business or First Class ticket, or even a combination of both. A tailor made ticket!

Please contact our travel experts for the best flight options and our special touroperator rates. Call us on +31(0)205730350 or email  info@puurenkuur.nl


What are the benefits of booking a ticket via Puurenkuur?

We book and research flights on a daily basis, meaning we are au fait and well placed to inform you of the various airlines and their conditions. As your entire trip is arranged with one firm, you receive just one invoice and have one immediate point of contact. Puurenkuur will keep you informed of any changes to schedules and will liaise with the airlines directly regarding alternative options. If you have arranged cancellation insurance and booked your ticket with us, your cancellation policy also conveniently covers your ticket.


Changes made by the airlines

Puurenkuur books both scheduled flights and charter flights to destinations. Airlines occasionally change the type of aircraft used on particular flights without advance warning. Scheduled flight timings and days of operation are subject to change by airlines.


Within at least one week before departure, you will receive your travel documents and tickets. It is advisable to look a day in advance on the website of the airport you are departing from to check the current departure time of your flight. Puurenkuur is not responsible for any  costs relating to potential changes in flight schedules or cancellations. As such,  an alternative flight or the cost of overnight accommodation will not be compensated for by Puurenkuur. Naturally, will we do the best we can to make sure any extra costs remain as low as possible.


Payment of your flights

Please be aware, that if your booking includes flights, we ask that you to pay the cost of the flights within 24 hours. (We will provide you with receipt of purchase). After receiving payment, we will book and bill for your flights at the current fare . If we receive your payment AFTER 24 hours, any differences in price will be charged to you.       


Can I book flights myself?

Of course you are free to book your own flights directly. We would, however,  like to draw your attention to the following:


Please wait to receive final confirmation of your accommodation from Puurenkuur before booking any flights. You will receive this final confirmation within 24 hours after booking.

You remain responsible for keeping updated about any flight changes. We can of course contact your hotel to inform them of the flight changes and amend transfer times accordingly.

Any additional accommodation costs resulting from the flight change should be paid directly to Puurenkuur. Please read the airline’s conditions very carefully prior to your trip.

When booking flights directly, we recommend you insure your tickets. The cancellation insurance we can offer at Puurenkuur does not cover the cost of flights booked directly  by you. Please print out your flight details and provide us with all your flight details so that we can arrange your transfers.


Extra fees for the flight?

There is a possibility that an airline unexpectedly charges you an extra fee of some sort. In this case, Puurenkuur will charge you for these extra costs only.


How do I check in for my flight?

On the day of departure you need to be at the airport at least 2 hours before your flight departs.

You will need to register at the check-in desk. On your ticket you will find your flight times. You can also check these times prior to departure on the airport’s or airline’s website.


What is my baggage allowance?

Airlines use two free checked baggage allowance systems; a weight allowance based on airline and class of travel, and a piece system of 20/23kg per bag. Where airline tickets and holiday documentation have been provided by Puurenkuur, these will list which baggage allowance system applies and details of the permitted weight allowance. 

Please note that it is advisable to put important documents, travel documents and medicines in your hand luggage. If your baggage exceeds the weight allowance, a fee will apply. For babies under 2, there is a maximum baggage allowance of 10 kg. Airlines are very strict on baggage allowance, so please do not risk any overweight baggage.


Check in online?

Several airlines allow you to check in online in advance. The online check in process is available 24 hours before departure. You can select a seat of your preference. At the airport you have then only to drop your baggage at the drop-off point. Group online check in is possible for parties of nine and under. For disabled passengers and families with babies, suitable seats will be reserved by the airlines in advance. The online check in system is the responsibility of the airline you are flying with - Puurenkuur does not have any influence over the system.


What is included in my booking

Every programme on our website provides a clear breakdown of what is included and excluded. Since the 1st of January 2012, prices published exclude flight fares. Almost all programmes advertised include transfers from the airport to the hotel.

Due to fluctuations in flight fares and the fact that more and more clients prefer to book flights departing from other airports than Amsterdam (Schiphol), we are more flexible and can offer you the best flight schedules. You can depart from either regional or international airports.


How are the travel dates determined

Holidays are always indicated in full days. If you book a holiday without transport, you should bear in mind that you have to abide by the check in and checkout times of the hotel. If you are travelling by plane to your destination, the departing day is counted as the first day of your holiday. It could be the case that your first day starts with a departure time of 23.00 hours, and the final day ends with an arrival time (back home) of 08.00 hours.

The day of departure will be the first day of your holiday and the day of returning will be the last day of your holiday. It could be the case that if you are booking a 10 day holiday, you will only spend 8 days at the destination itself due to the flying time. This indication of travel dates is a standard international system.


How do I book treatments which are included in my package

Treatments which are included in your programme are reserved by us prior to arrival. Of course it is possible to book extra treatments. You can book these extra treatments directly by contacting the hotel or spa. This request will depend on availability and costs for extra treatments should be paid directly to the hotel or spa. Puurenkuur is not responsible for the reservations of extra treatments directly at the hotel or spa.


Conditions of payment

We kindly ask that you respect the following conditions of payment.

Upon booking your trip, you should fulfill payment of 50% of the total trip’s cost.  We kindly request you to settle the full cost of any cancelation insurance policy, travel insurance policy and booking fees as well. The remaining value of your trip should be in Puurenkuur’s receipt a minimum six weeks prior to the date of departure.  In the case of a so-called ‘last-minute booking’, whereby the departure date falls within the aforementioned six week period, full payment should be completed within 24 hours of placing the booking, referencing your issued reservation number.


Important! For bookings including flight tickets, we request pre-payment of the the full price of any flight tickets be made within 24 hours of booking (we can provide receipt of payment). Once payment has been received, Puurenkuur will definitively secure tickets at the then current rate. Where payment is received after a 24 hour period has lapsed, any price fluctuations will be accounted for by the client. Where payment for the trip is not received in time, Puurenkuur reserves the right to withdraw from their contract with the client. In this instance, stipulations applying to ‘cancellation by the client’ become effective.


What are the possible means of payment? The invoice issued to you will contain all the details you need in order to affect payment. There are a number of ways in which to pay: via booking form (using IDEAL banking in the Netherlands only), cash, online banking or by credit card. (Credit card fees apply, as follows, as a percentage of the total travel costs: VISA and Mastercard at 2.9%; American Express at 2.85%.) In the case of a ‘last-minute booking’, payment should be made in the form of express or faster bank transfer. Overseas payments require IBAN and BIC codes and take longer than domestic bank transfers.

Our bank account details:

ABN AMRO bank: 494717165

IBAN: NL96ABNA0494717165




When can I expect my travel documents?

After making a booking, you will receive an automated email with the details of your booked holiday and the costs. If you have any extra wishes or if you want to extend your holiday with extra nights, you will receive a custom invoice within 48 hours after booking.  


What travel document do I receive?

If you are travelling within the Benelux you will receive an e-voucher.  For bookings outside of the Benelux, you will receive an accommodation voucher, an information letter, your e-tickets (if you have booked your flights with us) and general information about the treatment programme and the destination.  


Why do I get an accommodation voucher?

The voucher is the check-in confirmation at the hotel. The voucher includes all the booking information.


When do I receive my travel documents?

At least one week prior to departure you will receive your travel documents. In the case of a last minute holiday (departure is within 7 days), we will make sure that after we have received the payment, you will receive your travel documents immediately.  


Passport and visa

Passport and visa

It is your responsibility to identify all passport and other official requirements for your trip and to ensure you allow adequate time to obtain the required documentation. Please note that many countries require that your passport is valid for six months beyond the period of your stay. Requirements can change and it is your responsibility to ensure that you comply with applicable passport and visa requirements and take all necessary documents with you to gain access to any country or region to which you make travel arrangements. If you fail to do so, you will be solely responsible for any cost, loss, or damage which you or Puurenkuur incurs as a result of your failure. For regular updates on visa requirements or any conflictions in particular regions, see the Foreign Commonwealth Office Website www.fco.gov.uk


Please consult your local GP or visit the relevant Embassy websites for information on immunisation and other necessary precautions.


SGR and calamity insurance

Puurenkuur is a member of SGR – a Dutch national body which guarantees the protection of funds pre-paid to member travel agents and organisations on the part of the consumer. All holidays and trips contained on the pages of this website fall under the SGR guarantee. This guarantee ensures consumers are reimbursed any payments made prior to their travelling, should the travel company through which they booked be financially unable to deliver, as per agreed in the contract.


Calamity insurance

Puurenkuur is also a member of Stichting Calamiteitenfonds Reizen. Within reach of this agreement fall all holidays and trips advertised on the pages of this website, with the exception of those within the Netherlands. The Calamiteitenfonds ensures that consumers 1) are reimbursed (part of) the costs associated with their trip, should Puurenkuur be unable to properly deliver the holiday following the occurance of a calamity 2) are reimbursed any necessary excess costs incurred, should Puurenkuur need to adapt the holiday or prematurely end the holiday following the occurance of a calamity. For further details on this protection, please visit www.calamiteitenfonds.nl. The term ‘calamity’ here signifies an abnormal occurance as a result of war or natural disaster. A cost of €2.50 is added per booking to go towards this insurance.


Puurenkuur travel and cancellation insurance

Good insurance cover whilst travelling is an abslute necessity. Puurenkuur therefore prescribes a travel insurance policy which covers - as a minimum - medical, emergency and transport assistance and assistance in accidents.  If your travel insurance is with another firm, please supply us with your policy number. Cover for luggage and valuables is advisable. Puurenkuur works together with Allianz Global Assistance The market leader, Allianz Global Assistance has been operating in the travel industry for over 50 years. As the name suggests, Allianz offers worldwide assistance with a multitude of options to suit your specific travel needs and preferences. Allianz remains first and foremost in its combined offering of  travel- , cancellation and assistance insurances. Allianz operates around the globe, 24/7.


Travel insurance

No matter how thoroughly you have planned your trip, there is always a chance you will have to cut short your holiday due to any number of unexpected occurances, such as an illness, accident or death. In these instances, we offer the Allianz Global Assistance travel insurance. This covers emergency services, repatriation, luggage, accidents and medical costs. Puurenkuur offers package B.


Associated premiums:

World-wide cover € 2,75 per person per day

Europe-wide cover € 1,85 per person per day

Policy costs - €4.52


Puurenkuur cancellation insurance

In collaboration with Allianz Global Assistance, Puurenkuur has developed a unique cancellation insurance policy, relating specifically to travel retreats; not only does this cover any unexpected medical conditions preventing you from travelling, but also accounts for psychological or emotional reasons causing you to cut cut short your retreat. This is valid both prior to and during the time of travel. 


Valid medical conditions preventing travel are: serious illness, an accident involving yourself, travel companion(s) or immediate family members (1st or 2nd degree relatives) or death of any of the aforementioned; involuntary redundancy; employment secured following a period of redundancy; pregnancy; divorce or withdrawal from a co-habitation agreement; re-sitting an exam as part of a course of multiple years’ study, which can only be sat during the period of travel; receipt of an allocated tenancy agreement (whose term begins during or 30 days prior to the date of travel); life-threatening condition or death of a pet dog, cat or horse (up to 7 days before departure). Valid emotional or psychological reasons during the retreat itself can be significant emotional reaction, physical complaints resulting from treatments or products employed as part of treatments.



So what makes this policy different?

Regular cancellation insurance policies protect you in instances such as breaking a leg a week before your holiday. This is classed as a ‘medical’ reason. Puurenkuur’s policy goes one step further, covering you in special cases, such as discovering an allergic reaction to an oil applied during Ayurvedic treatments in India. As oils are a key part of Ayuredic treatments, remaining in India on such a retreat would be a pointless exercise.


The additional cover becomes effective as of the moment the policy is underwritten, up until the penultimate day of the trip. The cover is not valid in cases where, prior to travel, there was opportunity to consult a GP who may have concluded that travel was not appropriate.  Cancellation of the retreat during the period of travel requires proof from a GP or other local authority and cancellations will be agreed upon consultation with Puurenkuur. 



Costs as follows:

6,5% of the total price of the trip (excludes insurance tax, calculated 21% of the policy fee)

The policy fees equate to €5.45 (includes insurance tax, calculated at 21%)


If you are keen to explore more of your destination, it is also possible to hire a car from us at your arrival airport.  Puurenkuur works in collaboration with Sunnycars, a renowned hire car company offering an ‘all-in’ concept (even where damages are incurred!). With a guarantee of no additional charges, just one fixed price, it couldn’t be any simpler. The advantages of booking with Sunnycars are the company’s clear, ‘all-in’ quotes, optimum insurance cover, broad choice of vehicles, excellent organisation prior to your travel, free booking amendments and a 24/7 helpline. Sunnycars operates in over 90 countries worldwide. If you are considering hiring a car for your holiday, we would be pleased to accommodate your vehicle requirements – large or small, with or without aircon, 2,3,4 or 5 doors, cabrio or SUV. Please contact us to receive offers on the options available.


Cancellation of your booking

Puurenkuur cancels your booking

Should Puurenkuur need to cancel your booking prior to departure due to circumstances beyond  your control, you can choose whether your want to accept a new offer or be refunded the amount paid for the original booking.


You want to cancel your booking

If you or anyone on your holiday booking decides to cancel the holiday, the lead name must notify us of the decision as soon as possible. Any notification by telephone must also be confirmed in writing or by email within 24-hours by the lead name. Cancellation will take effect from the day we are notified provided that written confirmation is received within 24 hours of the original notification. The following scale of charges applies depending on when the notification of cancellation is received prior to departure that Cancellation charge per person cancelling notice of cancellation is received by Puurenkuur: 


Prior to 61 days loss of deposit 

8 weeks prior to departure: 10% of total holiday cost 

6 weeks prior to departure: 35% of total holiday cost 

4 weeks prior to departure: 50% of total holiday cost 

14 days prior to departure:  75 % of total holiday cost 

13-8 days prior to departure: 90% of total holiday cost

7- 0 days prior to departure: 100% of total holiday cost



Our Lowest Price Guarantee Label

Our buyers negotiate the very best prices possible with the hotels. What’s more, Puurenkuur guests receive exclusive add-on’s (extra massages, gift vouchers, transfers etc), which we as an agent have arranged especially at no additional cost to you.  It is here that we feel our added value really lies.

We are fully transparent when it comes to pricing, hence you will see our holiday prices are listed without flight costs. This allows you to verify our lowest price promise, but also gives you the freedom to dictate which airline you travel with. We will happily research the best and cheapest options available and book your flights for you, if you so wish.

In line with our transparent pricing policy, we have introduced a Lowest Price Guarantee to all our holidays: we learn from our customers, and are always grateful of feedback. If you do happen to come across an identical holiday package at a better price, let us know and we will pay you back twice the difference. This way, you aren’t only guaranteed a relaxing holiday, but can also be reassured that you aren’t paying over the odds for it.      

How does it work?

If, within 48 hours of booking with us, you spot your holiday being offered at a lower price than you paid and the criteria outlined below are met, we’ll reimburse you double the price difference, within 48 hours.

Conditions of our Lowest Price Guarantee

If you wish to apply for on our Lowest Price Guarantee, you must first meet a number of conditions, which we have set out clearly below. Prices must in the first instance be comparable and checkable.

  • Puurenkuur must be informed by email within 48 hours of you receiving your booking confirmation. The holiday price comparison must take into account each and every aspect of the holiday booked on your behalf by Puurenkuur, such as number of nights, room type, spa programme and/or treatments, transport type (including car category), meals and board and any other activities. Puurenkuur also wishes to be informed of the name of the provider you saw offer your holiday for less. 
  • The amount must be publicised in Euro and be fully and openly available in the public domain. Special offers or discounts, including those of third parties, are not included. 
  • We require evidence of the lower price offer in the form of a printscreen, weblink or other medium. Puurenkuur must be able to independently verify the publically available evidence. 
  • Puurenkuur retains the right to refuse the right to its Lowest Price Guarantee in cases of suspected fraud or misuse.


Where do I go with my complaint?

All hotels and resorts offered by Puurenkuur are carefully chosen. If you do have a complaint, you need to try to resolve this during your holiday with the hotel or resort in order to give them the opportunity to resolve your issue. If you are not satisfied with the solution provided by the hotel/resort, you can contact Puurenkuur immediately. Puurenkuur will do the best they can to settle any holiday complaints amicably.


Wellbeing and spa holidays with children

We are receiving an increasing number of queries regarding wellbeing holidays with children or babies. All spas worldwide have different rules they apply for bringing children or babies. The larger hotels chains generally offer facilities for your children and babies. During the day, your child will be taken care of in, for example, a kids club. In this case you can enjoy your treatments and programme in the meantime. If a kids club is not available at the hotel, a babysitter can sometimes be arranged. Please note that use of the kids club or babysitters will incur an extra fee per day. Puurenkuur’s specialists can inform you of suitable child and baby-friendly hotels.


Is there a baby bed available at the hotel/resort?

Yes, if you have mentioned you are travelling with a baby. We can arrange a baby bed for you. This baby bed is more or less the same as a camping bed for babies.  


Can I offer a programme holdiay as a gift?

Yes, we offer gift vouchers which are nicely presented and will be sent to the person you would like to recieve the gift, with a personal note if requested. There are two options:

You select a holiday and book this with an open date. The receiver can then choose when he/she wants to exchange the voucher and enjoy the holiday.


The second option is the Puurenkuur Wellness gift voucher which you can order online. You choose the amount of money the voucher is worth (starting from € 25.-to €5,000.). You can pay directly by internet transfer or debit card. Within 3 working days you will receive the gift voucher. If you have any questions, please call us on +31 (0)205730350.


Saunas and pregnancy

Puurenkuur offers special programmes for pregnant women. We can also give you more information on a suitable wellbeing holiday and the do’s and don’ts during pregnancy.  


Solo travellers

Seventy per cent of our wellbeing and treatment holidays are booked by solo travellers. That is why we do the best we can to get good deals for solo travellers. Some holidays are very suitable for solo travellers, avoiding, for example, a single supplement.


Renting a car during your trip

You can now book your international car hire directly through us, thanks to a new partnership with SUNNYCARS - our official global car hire partner. At Puurenkuur, we’re aware of the pitfalls associated with hiring a holiday car: price, local terms and conditions, hidden or additional costs to fill the petrol tank and one-way hire to name but a few. We chose SUNNYCARS over any other hire company thanks to the range and flexibility of the packages they offer. SUNNYCARS goes the extra mile…  


How to book

Booking is straightforward. Simply visit the Puurenkuur homepage and click on the car icon.

You can filter your car search by destination, number of days’ hire or type of car. Later on in the process you are presented with a number of service packages to choose from. These are explained below.


Service packages

1. Standard package (Coverage with excess)

  • Unlimited mileage* 
  • Third party insurance** (the extent of the indemnity is usually limited in accordance with the terms and conditions of the local car hire companies)
  • Vehicle theft cover with excess**
  • Local taxes
  • Airport delivery
  • Airport fee*

*Unless otherwise specified in the local terms & conditions of hire

**Not valid for Cuba. See here for local terms of hire.


2. All-Inclusive package (Coverage with refund of excess)

The All-Inclusive package includes the following, in addition to the Standard package features outlined above:

  • Comprehensive cover with refund of excess**, except in case of damage to glass, windows, wheels and/or tyres 
  • Vehicle theft cover with excess refund* 

In summary: the All-Inclusive package covers the cost of any damages caused and will also refund the amount of your excess.

Cost of damages to glass, mirrors, wheels and tyres are not included in this package. This is covered in the All-Inclusive PLUS package. 


* Not valid for Cuba. 

** Please note that the refund of excess offered by SUNNYCARS is not an insurance but a car hire      service of SUNNYCARS.


3. All-Inclusive PLUS package (refund of excess incl. glass & tyres)

In addition to the features listed in the All-Inclusive package above, this package – All-Inclusive PLUS – also refunds

  • excess* in case of damage to glass, mirrors, wheels and tyres.

* Please note that the refund of excess offered by SUNNYCARS is not an insurance but a car hire service of SUNNYCARS.


Some tips and advice….

Before you travel

  • When hiring a car abroad, the driver is required to carry a credit card in their name with them at all times, in addition to their passport and driving licence.
  • In case of an accident under the All-Inclusive or All-Inclusive PLUS packages, the damage is to be settled at the destination. On returning from your holiday you would invoice SUNNYCARS for the amount and will be promptly reimbursed for the amount.
  • Do your research and make yourself familiar with the local road traffic laws and highway code. Do vignettes or tolls apply? Are winter tyres obligatory? etc. 

Collecting your hire car

  • Thoroughly inspect the vehicle for pre-existing damage (scratches, dents, damage to windscreen and windows) and demand a copy of these listed on paper. Even (and especially) if the car hire representative claims this is not necessary.
  • If you intend to cross any country borders, communicate this to the car hire company in advance. 

Returning your hire car

  • Be sure to return the car within the timeframe agreed to avoid unnecessary additional charges
  • Inspect the car once more for damage and demand proof on paper of its state (a return protocol).
  • If you are returning the car outside of opening hours and posting keys through a letterbox, for example, take a photo of the car once returned. That way, you cannot be made accountable for any unfairly attributed repair costs.
  • You may be charged extra for additional cleaning if you return the car in an unreasonably dirty state.

Click here to visit the SUNNYCARS website.

Address Pureandcure:

Hullenbergweg 413

1101 CS Amsterdam

The Netherlands

Email Address:



+31 (0)20 573 03 50

Click here to chat with us via Whatsapp

Opening Hours:

Mon to Fri 10am - 5.00pm

Saturday 10am - 2pm

IBAN: NL96 ABNA 0494 7171 65
Chamber of Commerce: 34219539
VAT number: NL 8184 3581 1B01
SGR number: 3249

“Pureandcure gives me the relaxation I need.”

Floortje Dessing - ‘In Thailand I restarted my system. And that was necessary’